Lee p understanding critiquing quantitative research papers
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View Article PDF The knowledge of the dentists in dental clinics in Kerman City, Iran, about ocular complications after local anesthesia. View Article PDF 1. Learning style preferences from VARK model in dental students and the relationship between academic performances in Comparison of the effect of chewing mastic and spearmint sugar-free chewing gum on salivary flow rate and pH. Dental health by age, gender, and residence place in 6- to year-old children living in Shahroud City, Iran.
What explains socioeconomic inequality in dental caries among school children in west of Iran? A study based on Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. View Article.
Partial removable prosthesis in a patient with unilateral maxillectomy: A case report. Indexing Databases XML. The first is the concept of "membership categorization analysis" that permits the researcher to create categorical distinctions in conversation analysis such as "gender" that can be broken into "male and female" categories. Interview methods are based upon assumptions that societal processes and social actions can be understood from the vantage point of the voices of individuals living those experiences.
The interview method is central to sociological research that provides an understanding of the opinions, actions, and values individual members of society convey and can give us an understanding of the unique individual characteristics and preferences of individuals on a variety of topics ranging from social issues to consumer behavior norms of consumption.
In political elections, the use of opinion polls provides candidates a measure of standing on important values and norms within society as perceived by demographic group comparisons. These are produced both in a current societal process and through the longer-term events in historical epochs. Both official records such as court records, legal documents, almanacs of social events, etc. The ultimate meaning of documents is understood in the social context in which they were produced and discovered.
HAVE notes that a core concern in documentary analysis is establishing the factuality of the claims through the authenticity, credibility, and representativeness of artifacts. He reminds us that even when documents are factually established as credible representatives we still must struggle with the issue of establishing their "social meaning.
In chapter six TEN HAVE outlines ethnographic field methods and draws upon classic ethnog raphic research to demonstrate how ethnographies provide excellent sources of data for ethnomethodologists. TEN HAVE points out that ethnography is a research method that permits the researcher to live in the natural environment of a group as a part of the culture and so to gain a holistic perspective of the group, its culture and societal norms and patterns, based upon intense observations over an extended period of time.
Ethnography is a key method used in anthropology to do prolonged field work; it involves the use of key informants from the culture to help describe an insider perspective that is juxtaposed with the researcher's outsider perspective to provide detailed pictures of social interaction patterns and cultural norms. Based on extended field work in the Italian slums of Boston, WHYTE portrays the culture and social structure of the informal social structure of "street corner society" in the late 's.
TEN HAVE uses verbatim passages from WHYTE to raise issues of interconnectedness among the subjective experiences of the researcher, observations documented field notes of interactions within the field setting by members of the subculture as well as with outside agents, such as the police , and analytical preferences.
The "down to earth" accounts of how these procedures and policies are experienced in everyday life are uncomplimentary to the dominant perspective of the "official record" of the social institution. HAVE notes, as GOFFMAN did in "Asylums," t hat the mere fact of researchers being present and making observations has a latent function of disrupting the daily routines and patterns of staff and inmates that alters what is being observed and described in the ethnography.
It is the commentary and analysis of this latent function that makes it possible for the ethnography to be analyzed from an ethnomethodological perspective. The ethnomethodological analysis of the relationship between social institutional patterns of handling the course of dying among the ill in a hospital setting is reflective of how the emotional aspects of relating to the dying patient are handled through the formality and social distance of professionals. STRAUSS was a student at the University of Chicago and was heavily influenced by the symbolic interactionist theory that played a significant role in the development of the qualitative research traditions of today.
It is ironic that ethnomethodology emerged in the same period of time. I am not convinced that grounded theory has actually abandoned the tradition of generating explanation from the data, as TEN HAVE contends, but I do see ethnomethodology at one end of the continuum of qualitative approaches and grounded theory at the other end. I am not certain that grounded theorists would disagree with the idea of a confrontation, at least in the form of the production of categorical evidence claims that can be either refuted or verified.
What I think TEN HAVE may not be taking into account in his critique is that grounded theory uses the "deviant case" to explain exceptions and move to higher levels of abstraction in the naming of categories that are inclusive of the full description and explanation offered in their propositions and descriptive narrative accounts. He presents a series of observational assignments he has used with his students in sociology classes to teach fundamentals of observation and demonstrate how ordinary social situations can become the foci of inquiry.
He notes that the use of "bracketing" serves as a technique for illustrating the foci of what is studied, with attention to what is observed, that is distinguishable from what is already known about the phenomena observed. TEN HAVE emphasizes that in ethnomethodological analysis the researcher attempts to discover the specifics of how social actions take place contextually.
He contends ethnomethodology moves to specificity by consciously noting the procedural aspects and steps in observation and observer reaction to the observed. He notes that ethnomethodological indifference tends to be perceived as critical of established conventions of doing social research both quantitative and qualitative. TEN HAVE notes that: "The major function of this 'indifference' seems to be to clear the way for a reconsideration of pr actical phenomena in their local specifics, rather than in terms of an pre-given schema or rule-set" p.
Throughout his text Paul TEN HAVE demonstrates a concerted commitment to ethnomethodology that at times seems provoking and stimulating and at other times appears dull and boring. It could be that I am guilty of what TEN HAVE notes many qualitative researchers are guilty of: being more curious about the personal experiences and cultures that I study than about the more obscure details of routine that have become the hallmark of ethnomethodology.
As in other texts on qualitative methodologies e. Two primary approaches to qualitative methodology ethnography and grounded theory are identified and contrasted to ethnomethodology. TEN HAVE's background as a qualitative researcher and sociology professor at the University of Amsterdam provides a wealth of expertise to understand qualitative research methods. Ethnomethodology is a framework for evaluating research and theory.
The key contribution of ethnomethodology is to raise difficult questions that challenge the assumptions of methods and procedures used in a variety of qualitative and, to some degree, quantitative methods of inquiry. The text would have been of greater value to my teaching if it had laid out a programmatic tutorial for learning how to think from an ethnomethodological perspective. The summaries of major points at the end of each chapter provide a good review of the major ideas presented in the chapters.
The recommended readings at the end of each chapter are a good source for easily reading elaborations and the comparisons of ideas more briefly presented in the TEN HAVE text. As I read the book I thought of several applications of ethnomethodology that could be made in my own work as a marriage and family therapist.
In my work as a marriage and family therapist and supervisor of other therapists I currently use documents from family histories and genograms to provide a picture of generational connections. Nevertheless, the application of documents and pictures that I use in the therapy process has a key aspect in common with ethnomethodological studies, that of focusing on procedural aspects of the shared "situated practices" that illustrate patterns of everyday life through the generations.airtec.gr/images/aplicacion/2030-como-revisar-el.php
lee p understanding critiquing quantitative research papers
This is found in the commonalities that are embedded in the family system in past generations such as name preferences for children, occupations, religion, and political participation. I have used Jerry GALE's conversational analysis notations in analyzing dialogues in clinical cases. As a professor teaching qualitative research methodologies to doctoral level students I have observed two reactions to ethnomethodology that lead students to be curious about it but to experience difficulties in applying ethnomethodological procedures.
First, students are puzzled about how ethnomethodology can be applied because there are no clear-cut guidelines available to them. Second, students attempt to master the skills with little success and leave ethnomethodology for other qualitative strategies that have clearer procedures. I have come to see this confusion about ethnomethodology as a by-product of the position of not providing common formulations for how to apply ethnomethodology.
If my students are not comforted by this "self-evident" clarity of the methods and procedures they are left to wonder how the procedures could be transferred from one researcher to another. I was hoping to find, in this book, answers to the problems ethnomethodology posits to the novice. This book is not easy to read and requires deep thought and reflection to understand. Cicourel, Aaron Theory and method in a study of Argentine fertility.
New York: Wiley. Creswell, John W. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Denzin, Norman K. Handbook of qualitative research.
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Gale, Jerry Conversation analysis: Studying the construction of therapeutic realities.